Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Essay on The Life of Author, Ernest Hemingway - 638 Words

The Life of Author, Ernest Hemingway Earnest Miller Hemingway was borin in Oak Park Illinois. After graduating from high school, he got a job at a paper called Kansas City Star. Hemingway continually tried to enter the military, but his defective eye, hindered this task. Hemingway had managed to get a job driving an American Red Cross ambulance. During this expedition, he was injured and hospitalized. Hemingway had an affinity for a particular nurse at that hospital, her name was Agnes von Kurowsky. Hemingway continually proposed to her, and she continually denied. When Hemingway healed his injuries, he moved back to Michigan, and had wanted to write again. Hemingway married Hadley Richardson and was working in France,†¦show more content†¦But, when his first marriage failed, and produced a son, John, he had married Pauline Pfeiffer, who had his next 2 children. Based in Paris, he had travelled for skiing, bullfighting, fishing, or hunting that by then had become what most of his work was all about. Hemingway, started writing short stories, among them was Men Without Women in 1927, and A Farewell to Arms in 1929. This story (A Farewell to Arms), shows a lovestory within a war time setting. Many people believe that Hemingway, did his writing at this period of his life. He once confessed If I had not been hunting and fishing, I would have probably been writing. (Hemingway 283 (3)). Hemingways stories were based on adventure, and different aspects of it. His love of spain, and his love of bullfighting, led him to write a book called Death in the Afternoon. During the 1930s, Spain was in a civil war, still having ties in Spain, Hemingway made 4 trips their. He raised money, for a party called the Loyalists. He wrote a book about it called The Fifth Column. In this book, the narrator is the protagonist. From more experience in spain, he wrote a book called Whom the Bell Tolls in 1940. This book was the most successful writing, based on sales of the book. All of Hemingways life, has been fascinated by wars. For example, in A Farewell to Arms, he focussed on how war had no meaning, and was futile. Following the war in Europe, Hemingway returned toShow MoreRelated Ernets Hemingway Essay example1287 Words   |  6 Pages Ernest Hemingway I.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Introduction to Ernest Hemingway II.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Life and Times A.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Early Life 1.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Birth 2.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Parents 3.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Influences 4.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Siblings 5.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Hobbies B.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Adulthood 1.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;War 2.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Influences 3.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;MarriageRead MoreResearch Paper On Ernest Hemingway1155 Words   |  5 PagesThe author I have chosen is Ernest Hemingway, who is one of the most celebrated authors of the 20th century. He was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist. Hemingway wrote a variety of novels. My favorites are For Whom the Bell Tolls, written in 1940, A Farewell to Arms, written in 1929, and The Sun Also Rises, written in 1926. Most of Hemingway’s works are often criticized and considered sexist, but I believe that they give us a glimpse from a man’s perspective of what life wasRead MoreErnest Hemingway s Life As A Writer1074 Words   |  5 PagesErnest Miller Hemingway was born July 21, 1899 in Chicago, IL to Clarence and Grace Hill-Hemingway. Ernest’s parents were a physician and a musician, respectively, and were both well educated individuals who encouraged their children to follow in their footsteps educationally. Ernest Hemingway began his career as an author and journalist at the age of seventeen. Ernest took a high school course in Journalism taught by Fannie Biggs, which was taught, as though the classroom were a newspaper officeRead MoreErnest Hemingway s The Lost Generation885 Words   |  4 PagesErnest Hemingway was a famous modernist writer during the 20th century. Hemingway was part of what was known as â€Å"The Lost Generation† this name arose post-World War 1. The modernist movement was a drastic change in numerous things such as art and literature. Ernest contributed much to this movement with his literary works. World War 1 played a major role in not only modernism, but also Hemingway’s writing. Ernest Miller Hemingway was a modernist writer who took his experiences from World War 1 andRead MoreThe Life of Ernest Hemingway Essay1191 Words   |  5 PagesErnest Hemingway â€Å"But man is not made for defeat, he said. A man can be destroyed but not defeated.† (Hemingway, 29). This is one of the lines that Ernest Hemingway uses in one of his books, titled, â€Å"The Old Man and The Sea.† It was published in 1952, and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize the following year. The story of an old fishermans journey, his long and lonely struggle with a fish and the sea, was considered to be the most popular of all his works. Fortunately for this well-known author, heRead MoreResearch Paper On Ernest Hemingway1640 Words   |  7 Pagescom/plagiarism_checker/show_full/f9b44ec8d07565b Bella Calcara Mr. Balistreri Research Paper 15 September 2017 Ernest Hemingway Although Ernest Hemingway might be an older author, he has written some classic novels, such as The Old Man and the Sea and For Whom the Bell Tolls. This American short story writer and novelist was around years ago. Born in 1899, Ernest was raised by his parents, Clarence and Grace Hemingway. Growing up, Ernest and his parents loved to spend time away from their home in Chicago, Illinois. The familyRead MoreErnest Hemingway, a Legacy for American Literature1550 Words   |  7 PagesErnest Hemingway, A legacy for American Literature Some say that Hemingways personal life should disqualify him from the literature canon. They state that his torrent affairs, his alcoholism, and his mental state should preclude him from entry into the canon. These are the very things that help to make Hemingway a unique writer. Although his genre is fiction, he relies on his real life experiences with the people and places that he visited. The very definition of the literary canon disputes theseRead MoreA Farewell Of Arms By Ernest Hemingway1607 Words   |  7 Pages Ernest Hemingway s third novel a Farewell to arms was being created with his early experience with war. Just out of High school, E.Hemingway tried volunteering to fight in World War 1 but he was rejected by the U.S. military because of his poor eyesight. Instead he voluntarily enlisted in the Italian ambulance corps on the Italian front where he was injured by a mortar shell. While E.Hemingway was recovering he started to fall in love with a nurse named Agnes Von Kurowsky. She howeverRead MoreErnest Hemmingway: Shifting Gender Roles in The Sun Also Rises782 Words   |  3 PagesErnest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in Chicago, Illinois. Hemingway was an American author and journalist. Kemen Zabala author of â€Å"HEMINGWAY: A STUDY IN GENDER AND SEXUALITY† states that Hemingway was commonly known for portraying the sterile and disillusioned environment created by the massive human loss of World War I. Perhaps his exposure to the atrocious nature of war as a Red Cross ambulance driver in the Europe during World War I aided and further influenced his literary capturing ofRead MoreThe Story Of The Lost Generation1661 Words   |  7 Pages Brodie Wiener PIB LA 10 Period 3 Hensley 3 April 2015 The Story of the Lost Generation Living an spontaneous, carefree life like the characters in The Sun Also Rises do sounds like fun but it isn t what it seems. Ernest Hemingway writes a piece of literature that when looked upon through a new historicist critical perspective exposes the underlying truth and an uglier reality that is normally suppressed presents itself. New historicist criticism in a nutshell is arguing that the literature is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Music Is It s An Explosive Expression Of Humanity

â€Å"I think music in itself is healing. It s an explosive expression of humanity. It s something we are all touched by. No matter what culture we re from, everyone loves music.† (Billy Joel). The world is very diverse. There are different cultures, different instruments, different religions, and different traditions. There is, however, one thing in common between almost every different civilization: music. If one listens to music from a foreign country, of a strange genre, in a foreign language, chances are they will be touched by the piece anyways. Without understanding of the lyrics, if any, the sounds, melodies, and harmonies still speak deeper than words. While a picture is worth a thousand words, a piece of music must be worth a million words. Martin Luther said, â€Å"Next to the Word of God, the noble art of music is the greatest treasure in the world.† (Luther, n.d.). Music stretches miles, unites millions, and moves many. But music affects people in more ways than one. Music affects the brain. Music has many different factors that play into the emotions or feelings. Tempo, time signature, key and tonality all have something to with the way the human brain receives and depicts the music. As much as music has an effect on the brain, it has an even bigger impact on actions and emotions. Lastly, certain synesthetes are affected by music even more than people without synesthesia. Synesthesia is the rare condition of senses getting themselves mixed up, occasionally causingShow MoreRelatedMusic Is It s An Explosive Expression Of Humanity746 Words   |  3 Pagesâ€Å"I think music in itself is healing. It s an explosive expression of humanity. It s something we are all touched by. No matter what culture we re from, everyone loves music.† Billy Joel was right when he identified the best qualities of music; however, there are some problems caused by music as well. I personally think music is the number one societal problem in the world. This whole world is in love with music, including myself. Music is the number one thing people listen to when they are feelingRead MoreMusic : An Explosive Expression Of Humanity1748 Words   |  7 PagesBilly Joel once said, â€Å"I think music in itself is healing. It s an explosive expression of humanity. It s something we are all touched by. No matter what culture we re from, everyone loves music.† In many ways this quote is very accurate both socially and scientifically. Music is a vital part of almost every culture and serves many purposes culturally as a means of self expression and communication within a culture and the world at large. While music does serve several external purposes, perhapsRead MorePablo Picasso s Influence On Art1612 Words   |  7 Pagescommunication, emotion, a feeling or expression of ideas, by which we mean a person or convey something. This idea can be captured in a painting, sculpture or even through writing, which through their expressions disclose the most characteristic form of a culture. By century to century there has been many creative persons like writer, artist, composer who contributed to development in the all creative fields. We also had so many great visual artists who create greatest arts, music and books. Pablo Picasso isRead MoreHamlet And Life Of Pi Compare And Contrast5239 Words   |  21 PagesCurran Mrs. Gera Class: June7 2017 â€Å" The True Mind can Weather all the Lies and Illusions without Getting Lost† The Comparison of Protagonist’s Perceptive of Life and Change. Introduction: General statements: The level of consciousness of humanity can best be divided into two components, the enlightened and the unenlightened, those who are enlightened understand how to cease suffering and therefore end it to find bliss. The unenlightened do not comprehend how to can escape misery and are thereforeRead MoreAnalysis Of Hamlet And Life Of Pi5282 Words   |  22 Pages Introduction: General statements: The level of consciousness of humanity can best be divided into two components, The enlightened and the unenlightened, those who are enlightened understand how to cease suffering and therefore end it to find bliss. The unenlightened do not comprehend how to can escape misery and are therefore doomed to frustration. The clarification on a new age of awareness is apparent in Shakespeare’s heart-rending Hamlet and similarly with Yann Martel courageous narrativeRead MoreRace Film : The Great And Only Essay10250 Words   |  41 Pagesthough some who knew him insist it was ‘Mi-shaw.’ The correct pronunciation of his name is only the beginning of the ambiguities and mysteries associated with Oscar Micheaux† Patrick Mulligan—Oscar Micheaux: The Great and Only: The Life of America s First Black Filmmaker From the very beginning of the early stages in American cinema, African Americans had a presence on the silver screen. The twentieth century created a new era of cinema that consisted of films produced for and targeted to an all-BlackRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagessuperpowers on their periphery and a second round of even more devastating global conflict. The bifurcated international system that resulted from the cold war standoff extended the retreat of globalization, but nurtured the liberation of most of humanity from colonial rule. The collapse of the Soviet empire, and the freeing of its satellite states across Eastern Europe beginning in the late 1980s, marked another major watershed that further problematizes uncritical acceptance of the historicalRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesand permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturersRead Moretheme of alienation n no where man by kamala markandeya23279 Words   |  94 PagesAeschylus and Euripides. He was born at Colonus, a pleasant rural suburb of Athens, (probably in 496 B.C.) and died there, ninety years later. His father, Sophilius, manufactured armor for a living. As a boy, Sophocles won prizes for both wrestling and music. In his teens, he is reputed to have led the singing of a lyrical paean to celebrate the famous Greek victory over the Persians at Salamis (480 B.C.). He produced his first set of plays in 468 B.C., and won the first prize although he was competingRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words   |  658 Pagesââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  PAGE NUMBER IN THE BOOK 605 608 619 625 629 652 662 667 677 685 694 708 712 718 727 733 740 746 CASE Ministry of Sound – rapid growth but a questionable future in the music industry. Pharmaceutical Industry – global forces at work in the ethical pharmaceutical industry. TUI – competitive forces in the travel industry. HiFi – how can small players survive changing markets? Amazon (B) – latest developments in a successful

Fahrenheit 451a brief overview Essay Example For Students

Fahrenheit 451a brief overview Essay Fahrenheit 451†¦The Temperature at Which Books BurnFahrenheit 451 portrays censorship in the future through the fictional story of one man, Guy Montag, who undergoes an â€Å"awakening† by realizing the significance of his actions and the need to express the ideas that were bring oppressed by the future government. Guy Montag is a fireman who appears to be heartily supportive and contributive to the burning of books, which is normal because firemen in the conformist future burn books for a living. He meets Clarisse McClellan, a sixteen year old idealist with strong convictions against the social structure that oppresses individual thinking and demands conformity. Clarisse opens his mind to new concepts and from then on he begins to perceive the world differently. One day, Guy and the other firemen have to burn down the book-infested house of an elderly lady who refuses to leave her house and her books, so she burns to the ground with her books making Guy realize that â€Å"There must be something in books, things we can’t imagine, to make a woman stay in a burning house; there must be something there.† (p.51) Guy sneaks two books from the lady’s home and as the time goes by, he secretly reads many books until his wife discovers his secret and turns him in. After that, Guy b urns his firehouse and the men in it to evade being caught and as a result becomes the most wanted fugitive in his country. Guy escapes successfully and works with a small group of revolutionaries to restore the respect and circulation of books. The title of the book, Fahrenheit 451†¦The Temperature at Which Books Burn, is significant because it is a metaphor for real life and it is used as a prominent symbol in the book. Fahrenheit 451 is the temperature at which books are burn. The firemen know this because they work with burning books everyday. The â€Å"Book People† dread this temperature because it destroys the one thing they’re trying to save. Ray Bradbury uses Fahrenheit 451 to symbolize censorship. Like the burning of books, censorship oppresses the ideas of many people. The whole book is a metaphor for what is happening with censorship in the world. Many people all over the world are being punished for not conforming and all throughout history we have seen cases of persecution just for having different beliefs. The loss that was suffered when the firemen burned the books at Fahrenheit 451 is the same loss we suffer when we censor an idea or voice to make it more conformed. If we feel our ideas are being censored, if our â€Å"books are being burned†, we need to take a stand. Each time we let ourselves be censored, unique ideas are being destroyed and forgotten. Each time we let a â€Å"book burn†, we lose a piece of humanity. Ray Bradbury says Fahrenheit 451, censorship, is temperature at which â€Å"books burn† (we lose a piece of humanity). Bradbury wanted us to understand that when we cede to censorship, we lose a piece of humanity. My first impression of Guy Montag was that I thought he was the antagonist. He seemed to thoroughly enjoy burning books and he didn’t even seem to have one thought of remorse. â€Å"It was a pleasure to burn. It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed. Guy Montag thought†. (p.3) I noticed right away that Guy was very observant because as he walked home, he could â€Å"sense† the energy of someone else. â€Å"His inner mind, reaching out to turn the corner for him , had heard the faintest whisper. Breathing? Or was the atmosphere compressed merely by someone standing very quietly there, waiting?† (p.5) The last aspect of my first impression was that Guy Montag was a bit to proud and arrogant because when Clarisse didn’t give him what he thought was his rightful amount of respect (utmost respect, like one would give to someone who had worked many years to gain others’ respect, instead of many years of des troying books), Guy got all pouty. â€Å"Guy’s was a clenching and uncomfortable silence in which he shot her accusing glances.† Overall, I didn’t like Guy Montag at all in the beginning of the story and I was all set to hate him for the rest of the book but that didn’t happen. .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae , .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae .postImageUrl , .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae , .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae:hover , .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae:visited , .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae:active { border:0!important; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae:active , .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u689a2f56b39518db83032aeda92518ae:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Chile Political Parties And Organizations EssayThe main character, Guy Montag, went through the most significant change because of his encounter with Clarisse McClellan. She asked him questions that he never contemplated before and she made him really rethink his perceptions of the world. Up until that point, no one ever asked why he became a fireman, so he never really gave it much thought. Guy just accepted his job as a part of his fate. Clarisse mad e Guy really think when she asked him if he was happy. This question made Guy seriously wonder and after that, he began to notice the personalities of others. By asking him questions, Clarisse installed a sense of curiosity in Guy which eventually led to him reading the very books he was supposed to burn. Guy became more observant and began to theorize on â€Å"why† and he really weighed out his decisions after that. If Guy had not met Clarisse, he would never have questioned the morality of burning books. He would have never questioned the logic. Clarisse lit the fire (no pun intended) of passion in Guy that burned throughout his life and gave him the strength and courage to fight for what he believed in.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Supply and Elasticity

Define Supply and explain what Causes Change (shifts) of Supply and how Supply Determines Prices Supply refers to the ability and readiness of sellers to create and offer different quantities of a commodity at different prices, or during a certain phase (Arnold 2010). Similar to demand, supply can also change. The supply of a commodity can increase or go down. Supply increases when suppliers can produce and are ready to sell the good at each price.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Supply and Elasticity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, sellers could produce and be ready to sell 50 dresses at $20 each in May, while in June they could have the capacity to produce and be willing to sell 70 dresses at $20 each. If supply increases, the entire supply curve shifts to the right as shown in fig (a). Fig (a) Shifts when Supply Increases On the other hand, supply decreases when sellers decide to produce and se ll less of a good at all prices. For instance, sellers can produce and be willing to sell 50 dresses at $20 each in May, while in June, they could have the capacity to produce and be willing to sell 25 dresses at $20 each. If supply decreases, the entire supply curve shifts to the left as shown in fig (b). Fig (b) Shifts when Supply DecreasesAdvertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many factors affect the supply of goods and interfere with supply curves. These factors include prices of other commodities, technology, prices of related resources, prospects of future price, the amount of sellers, government restrictions and taxes (Arnold 2010). Price of Related Resources Resources are central in the manufacture of goods. For instance, manufacture of tables needs wood. Table production becomes less expensive when the price of wood decreases. The profits from manufacturing tables increa se as price of tables remains the same even ass cost reduces. Consequently, the economic incentive to manufacture more tables boosts. Table manufacturers will make and sell an increased number of tables at each price. Therefore, the supply curve of tables will rise and this curve will shift to the right direction. Manufacture of tables becomes more expensive when the price of wood increases. As a result, the supply of tables will fall and the supply curve of tables will shift to the left direction. Prices of other Goods Changes in price of a single commodity affect the supply of other goods. For instance, a company that manufactures plastic cups may start manufacturing glass cups, when the price of glass cups rise. Quantity of Sellers When an increased number of sellers begin selling a commodity due to high profits the supply curve moves to the right. When the number of sellers reduces due to losses the curve shifts to the left. Technology Technology refers to expertise in use of re sources during production (Arnold 2010). An advance in technology refers to the capacity to yield increased output with a fixed measure of resources and this lessens costs in unit production. For instance, lest assume that it takes $80 to create 20 units of a product. The cost of production per unit is $4. Suppose an advance technology can produce 40 units at a cost of $80, the cost of production falls to $2, for every unit. When the per-unit cost of production falls, quantity of supply increases.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Supply and Elasticity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reduced costs of each unit boost profitability and these acts as an incentive to manufacturers to create more products. For instance, if farmers discover a way to grow peas using the same quantity of resources, cost of production per unit decreases, profits rise and farmers get the incentive to grow and sell more peas at each price. The curve of supply here shifts to the right. Future Price Expectations Producers may stop producing a commodity if they predict that it will sell at a higher price in prospect. In this situation, the supply curve will shift to the left. For instance, if wheat producers expect that the prices of wheat will rise next year, they may stop selling wheat pending next year. Equally, if wheat producers expect that the price of wheat will fall next year, they will sell more wheat this year. Government Restrictions At times, the government may decide to cut supply through imposing an import quota. For instance, a U.S. import quota on Chinese mobile phones will cut the supply of China mobile phones in America and the curve will shift to the left. Similarly, the supply of Chinese mobile phones increases upon removal of the import quota and the supply curve shifts to the right. Taxes and Subsidies Taxes increase the costs of commodities. When the rates of taxes rise, producers tend to produce l ess commodities and the curve shifts to the left. Besides, when the rates of taxes decrease, producers tend to produce more goods and the supply curve turns to the right. Explain what is Price Elasticity of Supply and its Determinants and why does it Matter whether Supply is Price Elastic, Inelastic or Unit-Elastic? According to the law of supply, higher prices increase the amount of supply. The price elasticity of supply gauges how the amount of supply changes with price (Mankiw 1998). The supply of a product becomes elastic when the amount supplies responds to pr ice change significantly. Supply becomes inelastic when the amount supplied reacts to price changes insignificantly. The flexibility of sellers to change the quantity of good they produce affects price elasticity. For instance, land at the beach is inelastic, since production of more land is impossible. On the other hand, commodities like cups, seats and radios have elastic supplies, since companies that produce them can extend the time for work in response to a higher price. The main determinant of the price elasticity of supply in markets is the phase of time under consideration. Supply becomes more elastic after an extensive period than after a short duration (Mankiw 1998). Companies cannot change their quantity of production over a short phase.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the amount supplied in the short run does not change in reaction to changes in price. On the other hand, companies may create new plants, or close old ones in the long-term. Besides, new companies can penetrate a market as the old ones end. Therefore, the amount supplied can react to price significantly, in the long-term. Price elasticity of supply matters because it helps in determining how price is reacting to changes in demand. For instance, coffee demand may change due to introduction of substitutes at a lower price, or due to people’s sensitization about the negative impact of caffeine in coffee. When the price elasticity of supply is high, the price changes insignificantly compared to when the price elasticity of supply is low. A slight change in price can make companies to cut the quantity supplied down to the lower quantity demand, with high price elasticity (Taylor 2006). Therefore, the elasticity of supply affects the equilibrium price and change in quant ity. After considering supply elasticity, we can foresee what happens to prices following a shift in the supply of a commodity. We can as well forecast what the impact of a change in demand on price. References Arnold, R 2010, Microeconomics, Cengage Learning, London. Mankiw, G 1998, Microeconomics, Elsevier, New York. Taylor, J 2006, Principles of macroeconomics, Cengage Learning, London. This essay on Supply and Elasticity was written and submitted by user Emmy Burt to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Cellular life essays

Cellular life essays In this paper I will show my knowledge of many different topics of Cellular Life. I will explain the theory of biogenesis, cell theory, the history of both and how they tie in together. I will also state the scientific method and why it is important to science. Abbi Spallonzani used Scientific method in his biogenesis experiment. Scientific method are some rules or principles used in research and experimentation. Objectivity is the attempt to observe things as they are. Approach is using either inductive reasoning or deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is using results of observations and experiments with more general hypotheses and theories. Deductive reasoning is using the exact results of previous experiments. Deductive reasoning is used back in the mid 1800's when Louis Pasteur was offered a prize if he could solve the theory if abiogenesis was possible. Abiogenesis is the belief that living things can come from non-living things. Biogenesis is the belief that living things are given birth from other living things. He used previous experiments such as Francis Redi, John Needham, Abbi' Spallonzani, and many others to devise a strategy. He made swan neck flasks with large enough holes in them to let air in but no microorganisms. He boiled mutton broth and put it in the jars and the broth lasted over a year without spoiling. This proved that abiogenesis was wrong. The organisms and flies in previous experiments succeeded in attacking the broth but since the swan neck jars kept them out this proves that nothing can grow from a non living object. The cell theory is a set of rules that are true of all living things. A cell can only be created by another cell. All living things have at least one sell. Cells are the fundamental structure of all organisms. ...

Saturday, February 29, 2020

A Study on Employee Attitude and Leadership Behaviour

ABSTRACT The Research titled namely â€Å"A Study on Employee attitude Leadership Style† is a research study conducted among various managers in different functional areas in Sify Software Limited Everonn Education Limited. In this research study, the researcher has made an attempt to identify the various styles followed by leaders due to different behavior among employees. The study mainly focus on the various attitudes of employee’s in different groups and its impact of the performance if individual, group or team organization. Further, the study also focuses on finding out the significant relationship between the attitude of employees and its impact of completion of module, work, deadlines, and target. This study is limited to the managers working at Sify Software Limited Everonn Education Limited. The Researcher has proposed to use descriptive type of research Analytical type of result. The Researcher has proposed to use descriptive type research, in order to collect the real facts from the respondent’s regarding the attitude of the employees. The Researcher has also proposed to use Analytical type of result to analyze the behavior of employees and its impact of deadline productivity. Once the data has been collected from the respondents (Managers), the Researcher has proposed to use various statistical tools like Percentage Analysis, Weighted Average Method, Chi-Square Method, One-Sample Run Test, etc. , and in order to analysis the various types of behaviors, the researcher has also planned to use cause and effect of diagram. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1INTRODUCTION Employee values, attitudes, and leadership behavior play a very important role in enhancing employee work motivation and performance. Employee work values, attitudes and leadership behavior can carefully be adjusted to produce a strong impact on employee work motivation. It would, therefore, be interesting to examine the precise nature of their roles in influencing the intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation of employees. Individuals vary in their value systems. For example, achievement is a concern for the advancement of one’s career while concern for others may reflect caring, compassionate. Supervisory behavior may vary considerably in the same job situation. Behaviors such as encouraging other employees or helping others work on difficult tasks. A supervisory behavior may adopt democratic orientation or punishment when interacting with employees and thus may affect the work behavior. Though research on leadership styles, work values, and attitudes is concerned with finding the conclusions as to what specific leader behavior, work values and attitudes would produce a strong impact on employee work motivation and performance, no clear-cut conclusions have yet been rendered. It is, therefore, necessary to examine these issues, on a relative basis, which characteristics may act as more effective motivators in employee motivation and work performance. With such an understanding, management would better be able to use available motivational tools for their maximum impact on employee work performance. Thus the objective of this study is to examine the importance of values, attitudes and leadership behaviors in employee work motivation and performance. To gain a deeper insight into the exact nature of such influence, the roles of employee values, attitudes and leadership behavior in influencing intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation and performance are examined. Finally, the study explores the managerial implications of the findings and discusses the actions that might lead to improvements in employee motivation. VALUES, ATTITUDES AND EMPLOYEE WORK MOTIVATION The following description relates to values, attitudes, and employee motivation. VALUES Values are enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence (Rokeach, M 1973). Some basic values, which are expected to affect the attitude and work motivation of an employee, would logically include: Family: The extent to which the job offers family well-being to the employees Recreation: The extent to which the job offers recreational facilities to the employees A sense of accomplishment: The degree to which the person feels the job gives the person a sense of accomplishment after the job is done. Advancing at the company: The degree to which the person feels the job will create opportunities for advancement. Financial security: The extent to which the job offers financial security to person. Integrity: The extent to which the job provides information accurately and emphasizes impartiality and recognizes different points of view ATTITUDES Attitudes are not the same as values. Attitudes are evaluative statements –either favorable or unfavorable—concerning objects people, or events. It has been treated both as a general attitude and as satisfaction with five specific dimensions of job: pay, the work itself, promotion, opportunities, supervision and co-workers (Smith, Kendall, and Hulin, 1969; Balzer and Smith et al, 1990). The combined effects of these factors produce for the individual some measure of satisfaction and dissatisfaction (Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman, 1959). Definitions of these five dimensions of the job are given as under: Definitions of key Job Dimensions Job DimensionsDefinition Work SatisfactionThe extent to which an employee is satisfied with work, including opportunities for creativity and task variety, allowing an individual to increase his or her knowledge, changes in responsibility, amount of work, security, and job enrichment (Balzer and Smith et al, 1990; Smith et al, 1969) Pay SatisfactionThe extent to which an employee forms an attitude toward pay based on perceived difference between actual pay and the expected pay. Expected pay is based on the value of perceived inputs and outputs of the job and the pay of other employees holding similar jobs or possessing similar qualifications (Balzer and Smith et al, 1990) Supervision SatisfactionThe extent to which an employee is satisfied with his or supervision, as measured by consideration and employee-centered actions of the supervisor and the perceived competency of the supervisor by the subordinate (Balzer and Smith et al, 1990, Herzberg et al, 1957) Satisfaction with promotionsThe degree to which an employee is satisfied with the Company’s promotion policy, including frequency of promotions, and the desirability of promotions (Balzer and Smith et al, 1990, Herzberg et al 1957) Co-workers’ SatisfactionThe work-related interaction and the mutual liking or admiration of fellow employees (Bazler and Smith et al, 1990, Smith et al, 1969, Alderfer, 1969) Overall Job SatisfactionThe extent to which an individual’s desires, expectations and needs are fulfilled by employment (Szilagi, Sims, and Terrill, 1977) 1. 2INDUSTRY PROFILE As the study is applicable only for e-Learning industry let us have a brief introduction about the software industry below. The current e-learning boom in India has added to the existing woes. Standards apart, the industry hangs on the edge where processes and players are dubious. Much of this blame can be put on the Indian government’s inability to put together a regulatory body. Unregulated and unstructured, the e-learning industry in India is likely to wreck havoc for the global e-learning industry as small vendors pile up huge learning garbage for clients worldwide. E-learning in India has come of age. Two decades and the nation already cherish several global e-learning players on its soil. This can be attributed to some basic reasons like cheap human resources, a large pool of English-speaking workforce and ‘business discounts’ offered by the central and state governments. Although exact figures of the size of the industry is not available, a conservative estimate shows the offshore e-learning industry at about $150 million in 2004-05, up almost by 200 percent in the last two years. In spite such impressive figures, the e-learning industry in India remains mired with a plethora of issues. Some of these issues include lack of uniform e-learning standards and workplace practices, and the lack of adequate human resources to power the spiraling upward growth. These concerns apart, government apathy has also bolstered fly-by-night e-learning entrepreneurs who eye quick bucks and increasingly deliver ‘learning garbage’ to a global clientele. Smaller vendors in India have setup e-learning business houses with paltry investments of a few thousand dollars – in the hope of getting a sizeable pie of the global e-learning business. Most of these short-term vendors run their shows from North India – from places in and around the National Capital Region of Delhi. The modus operandi for these vendors is simple. They rent in a couple of rooms in an urban area and advertise for resources in job websites and newspapers. Writers, designers and technology professionals – mostly unskilled – are hired by the dozens. The average salary of the employees ranges anything between $100 to $400 and the working hours stretch well over 72 hours per week. Next, these companies setup small sales calling teams to call up international clients asking for work. The sales pitch is often exaggerated and boasts of a few â€Å"big names†. To show their experience, these vendors cull-out a few odd CBT’s from other companies or ‘steal’ courses through their contacts. The basic quality that behooves a standard e-learning company is absent in these companies. Proprietors remain ignorant of even the most basic information that is essential to run the show. A Java programmer, for example, is asked to hone his skills in C++ or any other program since he is responsible for all ‘programming’ needs. Almost anyone who walks in for the position of writers is employed as an ‘instructional designer’, primarily because they can be asked to work for lesser salaries on the pretext that they lack instructional designing experience. Vendors also rely on these writers to validate the learning content for authenticity even when content validation remains the domain of the expert, the Subject Matter Expert (SME). The writers and designers are instructed to download content from Internet websites and ‘rewrite’ them before using it. A basic ignorance of the Internet medium on the part of the owners means that the writers are often confused with the content because no single idea or information on the Internet appears consistent. E-learning processes are virtually absent in these companies. All that offers a direct benefit to the proprietor becomes part of the practiced processes. A Project Manager, for example, may be required to recruit people, review e-learning courses, undertake marketing activities, and do just anything that catches the fancy of the owner. In some companies, it was observed that programmers were asked to work as typists. The motto: no resource should sit idle. Employees who work for more than 9 hours a day are neither paid additional remuneration nor are given facilities like cabs and food for their late stay and long hours of work. As an e-learning professional once remarked, â€Å"employees in these fly-by-night ventures reminds one of the rampant practice of human slavery in Africa and Arabian countries a few centuries back. Professional torture apart, these employees are also subjected to extremely inhuman conditions of work – congested workplace, outdated computers, stinking toilets, and the same paltry salary year after year. Employees in these companies too appear to have resigned to their fates – partly because their poor education that doesn’t stand them in good stead for jobs in big e-learning MNCs and also because most do not have a professional competence in English language. This phenomenon is rarely reported by any section of the Indian media, perhaps due to ignorance or for fear of antagonizing the international fraternity. The abysmal condition and the unplanned e-learning sector, however, have both a positive and a negative side to it. The positive side is that these e-learning ventures help to reinforce the fact that there is no alternate to quality, and quality comes from the big guys, not the fly-by-night operators. The flipside is that the employees in tiny Indian -learning ventures rarely get the exposure to standard work processes and world-class e-learning products thereby subjecting themselves to professional impairment. Unfortunate for the Indian e-learning industry, at a n era of globalization and information revolution, Indian laws too have failed to contain these IT hawks. While the existing labour laws do have provisions against inhuman practices in the private workplace, in practice they remain a mirage. Most of the employees neither have the financial resources to chase litigation nor are they willing to ‘waste’ their time. The Southern part of India presents a striking contrast to the North. Recent years have seen a rapid and strategic development of global e-learning companies in the South, in places like Bangalore and Chennai. Several global players have also setup their centers in Pune, Mumbai and Hyderabad. Not surprising, the South has become a favorite e-learning destinations for serious e-learning players because of the absence of the mayhem so rampant in the Northern part of the country. Although the same Indian laws apply to all states across India, security and infrastructure is usually better in the Southern states than in the North. Consequently, most of these global giants are reluctant to setup their operations in the North for obvious reasons: lax security, incompetent e-learning resources, and rampant corruption. However of all the paraphernalia, one primary reason that dissuades the big names in e-learning from setting bases in North India is the abysmally poor skill-sets of the workforce here. In an era of cut-throat competition, generalized skills fetch little or paltry returns. In the past companies like Tata Interactive Services, Brainvisa, Sify e-learning and Accenture have all failed to locate substantial trained workforce from the North for its setups in the South. Amidst all the rigmarole, smaller global clients seeking ‘cheap’ e-learning courses remain unconcerned about the operatives of these vile businessmen. The only thing that seemingly matters for them is ‘cheaper products’, even if it comes in poor quality or if the employees who developed them are subjected to inhuman practices. Its time that global clients shed their ignorance and act responsibly by seeking detailed credentials from smaller e-learning vendors in India on their HR processes, employee welfare schemes and workforce competence. Failing to do this will not result in the development of shabby e-learning courses. The state of e-learning in India, particularly the frenzy in North India, remains a serious concern for the industry. Either the law of the land has to haul-up the desperados or wait till the hawks eat up the industry for the worse. A regulatory authority is essential now, if the industry is to survive and prosper. Money-eyed hawks can’t be allowed to have a field day. If they hang around for long, the death of the industry in India is imminent. 1. 3 COMPANY HISTORY 1. 3. 1 SIFY SOFTWARE LIMITED Sify eLearning was formed in December 2000. With over 8 years of experience in the training domain and our speciality in Instructional Design and Interactive Multimedia Content Development, we have developed over 5000 hours of learning content comprising Web based training (WBT), Computer based training (CBT), and Instructor Led training (ILT) courses. We have close to 300 employees located in our offices in India, the US, UK, and the Middle East. In India, Sifys offices are located in Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, and Bangalore. Sify eLearning, which ranks among the top three eLearning Services providers in India, is a part of Sify Technologies Ltd. (NASDAQ:SIFY), with a revenue of US$150 million in 2008. Sify Technologies (www. sifycorp. com) is a pioneer and leader in the Internet, networking, and e-Commerce services in India and serves more than 1500 corporate and 600,000 retail consumers. We are proud to be the preferred eLearning vendor to many Fortune 100 companies. 1. 3. 2EVERONN EDUCATION LIMITED Everonn is one of the leading educational companies in India. Everonn today is the largest VSAT education network in the World. Everonn is listed in both the NSE and BSE. With a firm belief that technology-enabled learning can truly nullify social and economic boundaries, Everonn’s achievements have helped millions of students achieve their dreams. From its pioneering VSAT-enabled virtual and interactive classrooms to its emphasis on offering only the highest-quality content to students, Everonn’s quest for excellence has enabled the company to repeatedly break new grounds in the Indian education industry. Everonn’s commitment to a better standard of education is the guiding principle behind all its activities, from making Pre-school toddlers school ready to enhancing the employability of college students and providing the best entrance exam guidance in the nation. 1. 4PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED The Research titled namely â€Å"A Study on Employee attitude Leadership Style† is a research study conducted among various managers in different functional areas in Sify Software Limited Everonn Education Limited. In this research study, the researcher has made an attempt to identify the various styles followed by leaders due to different behavior among employees. The study mainly focus on the various attitudes of employee’s in different groups and its impact of the performance if individual, group or team organization. Further, the study also focuses on finding out the significant relationship between the attitude of employees and its impact of completion of module, work, deadlines, and target. This study is limited to the managers working at Sify Software Limited Everonn Education Limited. 1. 5NEED FOR THE STUDY The need for the study is to bring out the various attitude of employee in different groups and its impact on the performance of individual, group or team organization. This research study is restricted to employees working in Sify Software limited Everonn Education Limited. Generally employees working in any software companies are from different background in the sense they are from different regions, different culture, language, belief, Qualification, religion, communities etc. , which generally varies from the employees working in other sectors. This difference in attitude of employees is a very big challenge for software companies since it leads to many conflicts among the employees that affect the conducive working environment of the organization. In this study the researcher mainly focuses on changes in attitude of employees and the level of impact on their performance. Further the researcher has made an attempt to analyze the change in leadership behavior due to changes in employee attitude. In addition, the study will also be helpful in finding out the significant relationship between the attitude of employees and its impact on completion of module, work, deadlines, and target. 1. 6OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 1. 6. 1PRIMARY OBJECTIVE 1. To study the changes in attitude of employees and the behavioral changes of leadership at Sify software limited Everonn Education Limited. 1. 6. 2SECONDARY OBJECTIVES 1. To identify and analyze the relationship between employee attitude and leadership behavior in Sify Software Limited Everonn Education Limited. 2. To analyze the level of impact of leadership behavior on the team and performance of team. 3. To find out various ways to improve the attitude of people towards organizational commitments. 4. To identify the relationship between the attitude of employees and their performance towards their job. 1. 7SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study may help to find out the style to be adapted by leadership that may help them to effectively control the attitude of employees and also it helps to influence the workers and to extract work from them. This study may show the various characteristics of employees and its impact on the performance. Generally employees working in any software companies are from different background in the sense they are from different regions, different culture, language, belief, Qualification, religion, communities etc. , which generally varies from the employees working in other sectors. This difference in attitude of employees is a very big challenge for software companies since it leads to many conflicts among the employees that affect the conducive working environment of the organization. In this study the researcher mainly focuses on changes in attitude of employees and the level of impact on their performance. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2. 1REVIEW OF LITERATURE ?Attitudes are not the same as values. Attitudes are evaluative statements –either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects people, or events. Employee values, attitudes, and leadership behavior play a very important role in enhancing employee work motivation and performance. Employee work values, attitudes and leadership behavior can carefully be adjusted to produce a strong impact on employee work motivation. It would, therefore, be interesting to examine the precise nature of their roles in influencing the intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation of employees. ?Leadership Theory Leadership Styles: Leaders and followers each have different traits, values and levels of motivation. Theories that explain leadership effectiveness in terms of situational moderator variables are called contingency theories of leadership (Yukl 2006). Fiedler’s (1964) contingency model of leadership effectiveness is contingent upon the interaction of leadership style and situational favorableness (Liu et al. 2003). Thus, leader effectiveness is the product of many variables related to the followers, the task, and the organization (Tatum, et. al. , 2003). Transformational leadership theory emphasizes longer-term and vision-based motivational processes (Bass Avolio, 1997; Liu et al, 2003) and attempts to capture the emotional and symbolic aspects of leadership, helping researchers understand how leaders influence followers and motivate them to make self-sacrifices, putting the needs of the mission or organization above materialistic self-interests (Yukl, 2006). Researchers have found that most managers believe there is no single universal style of leadership applicable in all situations (Yun, Cox, and Sims, Jr. , 2006; Lord et al. , 2001). For example, a task-oriented leadership style may be most appropriate where a job involves psychologically immature or inexperienced workers; whereas, a relations-oriented leadership style may be most appropriate where workers are highly experienced and can be trusted to work autonomously (Tatum, et. al. , 2003). ?Group Types: Yukl (2006) defines several types of teams that can be found within an organization; two such teams include: Functional and Cross-Functional. Yukl (2006) provides the following about each team: â€Å"Functional teams are characterized by members of an organization with specialized jobs but are all part of the same basic function (e. g. maintenance, quality, etc. ). These teams operate for a long duration of time with membership that is relatively stable. Cross-Functional teams are characterized by members from a combination of functional subunits (e. g. quality, production, sales, and maintenance) working together on projects that require joint problem-solving skills. These teams operate until their task is completed. Membership may be stable over the life of the team or it may change as some functions increase/decrease in importance†. Leadership Credibility: Credibility is the foundation of leadership, and employees want their leaders to be honest, inspiring, competent, and forward looking (Kouzes and Posner, 2000). The credible leader must be seen as well informed and worthy of belief (Stoner, 1989). Credibility n urtures collaborative, cooperative relationships where employees assume responsibility for accomplishing work-related objectives voluntarily (Gabris Ihrke, 1996). For credibility to exist there must be trust between leader and follower (Kouzes Posner, 2000). Leadership credibility deals with perceived believability toward the leader-supervisor as someone an employee can trust in a supervisor-subordinate relationship (Gabris Ihrke, 1996). Organizational Justice: Organizational justice theory is intimately tied to leadership and decision processes (Tatum, et. al, 2003) and is based on the idea that a set of justice rules is used by individuals to evaluate fair treatment; and the extent to which those rules are satisfied or violated determines perceptions of justice or injustice (Mayer, et al. , 2007). Procedural justice refers to the perceived fairness of the methods used to make organizational decisions (Tepper, et. al. , 2006; Bauer, et al, 2001). In procedural justice, employees are concerned about whether the decision process is fair and the process used to determine the outcome was just (Fernandes Awamleh, 2006). Perceptions of fair procedures enhance employee acceptance of organizational outcomes (Latham Pinder, 2005), lead to organizational commitment (Lind Tyler, 1988) and satisfaction at the individual level (De Cremer, 2007). Shared perceptions of justice at the group level are positively related to satisfaction and commitment to the organization (Mayer, et al. , 2007). Just outcomes signal to employees that they are valued by the organization (Tyler Lind, 1992). Individuals experience procedural injustice when they are denied voice and decision control (Tepper, et. al. , 2006). Interactional justice is defined as the interpersonal treatment people receive as procedures are enacted (Bies Moag, 1986; Colquitt, 2001). Interactional justice is concerned with how information is communicated and whether individuals affected by a decision are treated with respect and dignity (Fernandes Awamleh, 2006). ?Group Commitment: Commitment is believed to affect organizational performance (Fiorito, et al. , 2007) and outcomes such as job satisfaction (Williams Hazer, 1986). Commitment is strongly influenced by leadership (Kouzes Posner, 2000). When employees feel unfairly treated, they may respond affectively with low commitment (Latham Pinder, 2005). The effect of leadership style on group interaction depends on both the consistency of the leadership style and the attitude group members have toward the leadership style (Kahai, Sosik, Avolio, 1997). Describing the task in a way that links it to member values and ideals, explaining why a project or task is important, involving members in planning strategies for attaining the objectives, and empowering members to find creative solutions to problems (Yukl, 2006). If members see leadership as legitimate, they should remain more attached to the team and exert more effort to benefit it (Colquitt, Noe, Jackson, 2002). ?It is readily accepted that organizational change impacts employees in a variety of ways (French, Bell, Zawacki, 2000). Consequently, the impact of organizational change on employee attitudes has received considerable research attention (e. g. Gardner, Dunham, Cummings, Pierce, 1987; Griffin, 1997; Lines, 2004; Saari Judge, 2004; Schweiger DeNisi, 1991). Research indicates that employee attitudes are related to how individuals perceive or react to change (Mossholder, Settoon, Armenakis, Harris, 2000). This is important since positive perceptions of change can enhan ce the implementation of these organizational initiatives (Lines, 2004; Armenakis, Harris, Feild, 1999). In this study, employee attitudes are investigated when organizational change is caused by the introduction of new technology. As depicted in Figure 1, salient attitudes of interest include job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intent to turnover, and job stress. The most-used research definition of job satisfaction is by Locke (1976), who defined it as â€Å". . . a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences† (p. 1304). Implicit in Locke’s definition is the importance of both affect, or feeling, and cognition, or thinking. When we think, we have feelings about what we think. Conversely, when we have feelings, we think about what we feel. Cognition and affect are thus inextricably linked, in our psy-chology and even in our biology. Thus, when evaluating our jobs, as when we assess most anything important to us, both thinking and feeling are involved. Continuing this theoretical development, Judge and his colleagues (Judge Bono, 2001; Judge, Locke, Durham, Kluger, 1998) found that a key personality trait, core self-evaluation, correlates with (is statistically related to) employee job satisfaction. They also found that one of the primary causes of the relationship was through the perception of the job itself. Thus, it appears that the most important situational effect on job satisfaction—the job itself—is linked to what may be the most important personality trait to predict job satisfaction—core self-evaluation. Evidence also indicates that some other personality traits, such as extra-version and conscientiousness, can also influence job satisfaction (Judge, Heller, Mount, 2002) In the research literature, the two most extensively validated employee attitude survey measures are the Job Descriptive Index (JDI; Smith, Kendall, Hulin, 1969) and the Mi nnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ; Weiss, Dawis, England, Lofquist, 1967). The JDI assesses satisfaction with five different job areas: pay, promotion, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The JDI is reliable and has an impressive array of validation evidence. The MSQ has the advantage of versatility—long and short forms are available, as well as faceted and overall measures. Another measure used in job satisfaction research (e. g. , Judge, Erez, Bono, Thoresen, in press) is an updated and reliable five-item version of an earlier scale by Brayfield and Rothe (1951). All of these measures have led to greater scientific understanding of employee attitudes, and their greatest value may be for research purposes, yet these measures may be useful for practitioners as well. In practice, organizations often wish to obtain a more detailed assessment of employee attitudes and/or customize their surveys to assess issues unique to their firm. ?Job satisfaction is one of the most extensively researched work-related attitudes (Loscocco Roschelle, 1991). Saari and Judge (2004), however, observed that HR practitioners lack thorough knowledge of job satisfaction and related antecedents. Job satisfaction is operationally defined as an individuals assessment of the degree to which their work-related values have been achieved (Locke, 1969; Locke, 1976). Research suggests that organizational change has a discernable impact on job satisfaction (see, for example, Ferguson Cheyne, 1995) which is associated with organizational citizenship behaviors that are beneficial to organizational effectiveness (Organ, 1990). ?Organizational commitment is also a frequently studied job attitude (Lines, 2004; Loscocco Roschelle, 1991). Definitions and conceptualizations of the organizational commitment construct are numerous and diverse. Morrow (1983) observed at least 25 different conceptualizations of organizational commitment. Despite this diversity, OReilly and Chatman (1986), among others, suggest that psychological attachment to an organization is a theme underlying most conceptualizations of organizational commitment. Of particular interest in this study is the relationship between affective organizational commitment and reactions to the organizational changes since individuals with high levels of affective commitment tend to exert extraordinary effort on behalf of an organization (Porter, Steers, Mowday, Boulian, 1974). In addition, individuals with high levels of affective commitment are likely to remain with an organization because they want to remain with the organization (Porter et al. , 1974), not because they have no other alternatives or because of social pressure. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1PROPOSED METHODOLOGY 3. 1. 1FOR EMPLOYEES The Researcher has proposed to use Qualitative and Analytical type of research. The Researcher has proposed to use Qualitative type of research, to assess the behavior of various employees in different teams which has an impact on overall performance of the team. The Researcher has also proposed to use Analytical type of result to analyze the effect of behavior on their individual performance towards their relationship with peers etc. 3. 1. 2FOR MANAGERS To assess the changes in leadership behavior due to changes in employee attitude, the Researcher has used the same Qualitative and Analytical type of research design. 3. 2RESEARCH DESIGN The research design is the blue print for fulfilling objectives and answering questions of specific research problem. A research design is purely and simply the framework a plan for a study that guides the collection and analysis of the data. The research designs used in this project are listed below. 3. 2. 1 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH To describe the characteristics of certain groups e. g. users of a product with different age, sex etc. , to determine whether certain variables are associated e. g. , age and usage of a product. 3. 2. 2 ANALYTICAL RESEARCH To analyze the behavior of employees and its impact of deadline productivity. 3. 3DATA COLLECTION METHOD In this study the researcher has proposed to use both Primary and secondary data. 3. 3. 1PRIMARY DATA Primary data will be collected through a structured Questionnaire from the target respondents.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Why is sports so important for the people of a number of countries in Research Paper

Why is sports so important for the people of a number of countries in the world - Research Paper Example Majority of the people in Spain celebrated their world cup win in South Africa in 2010. There was renewed show of patriotism. The jersey worn by the national team players was symbolic of the people, united and committed to one nation and cheered it on to victory. At that time, the victory served to brighten up a country that was hit by the recession, its unemployment rate was increasing and the confidence in the administrative bodies was dwindling. However, the sport united the people and gave them renewed hope to deal with the problems they face. This is what football often does in Spain. The sense of patriotism is evident in every person even the politicians. More than ever, they become committed to institute policies that will improve the welfare of the citizens. Spain struggles with the Catalan section due to the increasing will of the Catalans to be self-governing. The Catalan people view FC Barcelona as the representation of their customs and culture. It is no wonder that they fill the stadiums with banners carrying political messages regarding the same. Football is important to them as it helps them air their demands. It is a platform for them to advocate for a political voice. Their actions serve to spur heated exchanges and influence political ambitions of the two sections. To the people of Catalonia, football is their massive voice and they hope to continue using the platform. Some go to the extent of crediting the Barcelona players for the victories in major European competitions. They believe they have a big say in major things as demonstrated in football. However, until their ambitions materialize, they combine together to celebrate triumphs. This signifies that the Spanish and Catalan identities are not essentially incompatible (T he symbolism in Spanish football illustrates that Catalan and Spanish identities are not necessarily incompatible). Third, Football in Spain helps companies increase their financial returns. The Spanish football